Medicine and health Indonesia
Medical care is provided by state and private medical institutions, under the overall guidance of the Ministry of health. In 1995 there were about 7 thousands of inpatient hospitals and outpatient clinics, 20 health posts thousands of full profile.
There is also a network of mobile medical centers. In addition, 250 thousand points combine the functions of medical aid and consultation centre of the national programme of family planning. There is a shortage of nurses (the total number of doctors is about 30 thousand, 100% of them practicing in the major cities).
Trained physicians are 24 medical University (the annual output is over 1 thousand people). Persist sharp differences in the level of medical care, in particular, between the medicine of the island of Java and other regions, between urban and rural areas, social layers and groups, religious communities.
There have been occasional outbreaks of epidemics of cholera, diphtheria, various types of fever, elephantiasis disease, whooping cough. More than 25 million children are controlled by the special health programme that has contributed to the dramatic reduction in child mortality.
About 30% of health expenditure for financing the national programme of family planning aimed at reducing fertility rates (in 1996, spanned nearly 23 million couples). Basic research in the field zdravookhraneniia in medical schools, a prominent place is occupied by traditional Oriental medicine.
Traditional medicine is alive throughout the archipelago. This is due to the traditional ties of China and Indonesia. Enterprising Chinese settled throughout Southeast Asia, throughout the history of this region. This trend especially intensified in the second half of the twentieth century. Already in early 70-ies of the Chinese ethnic minority in Indonesia numbered about 4 million, which accounted for 3% of the total population.
However, the Chinese controlled more than one third of the GNP of Indonesia. In the 90-ies of the Chinese controlled nearly all local retail trade. They dominated the private enterprises, insurance companies. In their hands is nearly all pharmaceuticals, trade of food products and traditional folk medicine.
Various forms of spiritual healing practiced by shamans, mediums and other healers in urban and rural areas. Many people believe that ritual and social mistakes can lead to misfortune, which includes a disease. Traditional healers can diagnose the source and deal with problems that can be solved sometimes by means of black magic.
In Bali doctors trained in modern medicine can also practice spiritual healing. Witchcraft accusations and attacks on alleged sorcerers are not uncommon in many areas and are the most frequent in times of social, economic and political unrest.