Cultivation technology of medicinal plants
Medicinal plants grow protected from the cold winds areas, because snow and frost of winter, they may freeze solid. The best soil is podzolized chernozems and cultivated easy-springboro mechanical structure. Not suitable soils are saline, marshy, sandy and heavy loam.
The best precursors for herbs – normal pairs, annual and perennial herbs, peas, winter cereals, maize.
A plowing for the spring crops make fertilizer for 45 – 60 kg/ha of NPK, phosphorus and potassium in autumn, the nitrogen before sowing (planting).
During plowing neodobrenie or not enough udobrenij predecessors simultaneously with mineral fertilizers manure (20 to 30 t/ha). If necessary, at the time of sowing (planting), watering is carried out (250 – 300 m3/ha).
In the formation of soil crusts before emergence, it must be careful to destroy. It is better to do light harrows type (SPM-0,7).
Beladona, cornflowers, Foxglove, sage, Echinacea sown shirokoryadny way with aisles of 45 – 60 cm Daisy Dalmatian – in furrows 3 to 4 inches deep,made by the openers or attached to this a tin tube at such an angle that the seeds spill out freely in the groove and not covered with earth. It is better to sprinkle the seeds in the grooves of the mulch layer (1 cm of fine sieved peat or humus, half mixed with the earth). Groove fully sprinkled. Seeding rate – 5 to 6 kg of dry seeds per 1 ha. You can sow the seeds before winter and if the winter is mild and there is no sudden prolonged thaws. Small areas are sown manually.
Echinacea is propagated by seeds (3 kg/ha) or vegetative Cornelissen way in early may. Definitely shoots break through, leaving 2 to 3 plants per 1 m. the Roots are harvested in autumn or early spring, the inflorescences during flowering. Use 4-5 years.
Land for ginseng fertilize well (70 – 80 t/ha), adding to the manure of superphosphate and potash salt (80 – 100 kg/ha) on heavy soils – sand. Plot cultivate, prepare the beds by 10 m, 20 cm in height in the direction from East to West, between which leave trails of 60 – 70 cm Rows covered with mulch (about 4 kg/m2). Stratify seeds sustained them before that at a temperature of 18 – 20 degrees C. In August it is cleaned, mixed with river sand at a ratio of 1. 3 and stored in a box, covered with earth. In April, seeds were washed and sown with row spacing of 10 cm and an interval of 2 – 5 cm. Beds for 6 – 7 days before emergence pritenyayut canopies for the period from may to October. A week before digging up the roots of the canopies removed. The roots are thrown on the beds under the scheme 30 – 40 x 15 – 20 or 20 x 30 cm be Sure to weed from weeds. Periodically loosen the soil. Plants 2 to 3 times sprinkled with humus. Against disease, the plants treated with Bordeaux mixture. Seeds are harvested and then ground with sand, washed from the pulp, dried, stratified; 4 – 6 years of manually digging the roots in September.
Crops of all medicinal plants, and other crops, kept clean from weeds by applying inter-row cultivation and manual weeding.
Harvested manually or mechanically, do not allow perestavaya. To collect seeds, when start to ripen the upper stalks or crack boxes (sage).
Roots, stems with leaves, baskets, dried in a dryer at a temperature not exceeding 35 – 40 degrees.
For a more detailed study of cultivation of medicinal plants should be further developed in literature (in particular, V. I. Zharinov, V. A. Ostapenko. The cultivation of medicinal, aromatic plants. – K. high school. 1994; L. V. Noon, V. F. Centurion, E. E. Lads. Attar and medicinal plants. – M. Kolos, 1979, etc.).